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It is common knowledge that many condenser and heat exchanger tubu failures occur within the first 6 inch of the tube. Inlet end erosions, stress corrosion cracking and crevice corrosion are different type of failure mechanism common in heat exchanger in the chemical industry. In the past, the accepted repair for this localized tube damage had been full tube replacement or shortening of the tube bundles - despite the fact that more than 95% of its length usually remains undemaged. Either type of repair has proven extremely expensive and time consuming. In 1976 CTI Shield/Seal were introduced by the CTI Industries Inc. (USA) as the cost effective alternative solution compare to the full tube replacement (retubing) and shortening of tube bundles.

CTI Shield/Seal is a metalic, thin walled insert wich is inserted and then mechanically expanded into the existing tube ends. Beside protecting damaged tube inlets, CTI Shield/Seal will also restore leaking tube to active service choosing the proper shield alloy is critical in the case of tube inserts. Material can be selected from arange of different alloys. Selection is based on the existing tube material, the service of heat exchanger and the cause of the tube failures. Options for shield material range from copper alloys (CuNi and Brass) to stainless steel, and include corrosion resistant, nickel-based alloys (e.g., Alloy 400, Alloy C-276).


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